Observation is a process in which information is obtained through the use of the senses. The Spanish Royal Academy defines this term as the act of observing, which in turn is understood as "carefully examining", "looking attentively or modestly".
The observation of behavior is one of the most flexible strategies of the scientific method in which it is intended to describe, codify, quantify and analyse the behavior that one wants to evaluate. In Order For This process to be valid, it has to be done in a structured way and following a series of phases.
The observation is a technique of observation of facts during which the analyst participates actively as spectator of the activities carried out by a person to know better his system.
The Purpose of the observation is multiple, allows the analyst to determine what is being done, how it is being done, who does it, when it takes place, how long it takes, where it is done and because it is done without interrogating those involved.
Types of Observation
El analista puede observar de tres maneras básicas:
- You can observe a person or activity without the observed being noticed and without interacting on the part of the analyst himself.
- The Analyst can observe an operation without intervening at all but being the observed person entirely aware of the observation.
- You can observe and be in contact with the observed people. The question
is simply to ask about a specific activity, ask for an explanation, etc.
Steps for a good Observation
Para realizar una buena observación y obtener información muy detallada, se debe tener en cuenta:
- Determine and define what is going to be observed.
- Estimate the time
needed for observation.
- Obtain the authorization to carry out the
- Explain to people who are going to be observed what will be
done and the reasons for it.
- It Makes it Easier to obtain data as it happens in reality
- They allow Us to know many forms of conduct that are considered unimportant by the subjects observed
- The facts are studied without intermediaries
- Independent Information Is obtained
- The data obtained refer only to one aspect of the observed phenomenon
- Does Not work to study large samples
- The Observer must be at the moment when the facts occur
- Does Not provide information on past events
The observational record consists in recording the behaviors to record their occurrence, their properties and their order of appearance.
The action of scoring observed behavior can take place at the same time as this occurs when direct observation is performed. This is possible because of the previous preparation, of the observers, by the design of very practical registration sheets or the use of recording devices that facilitate the task. Currently the sessions are taxed in video and then viewed and proceed to the task of recording the behavior coding.
- (A. 2019,02. Concepto de Observación. Equipo de Redacción de Concepto.de. Obtenido 2019,04, de https://concepto.de/observacion/)
- Benguría, S., Martín, B., Valdés, M., Pastellides, P. y Gómez, L. “Observación” (14 Diciembre 2010) en Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Recuperado en 4 Septiembre 2017 de Universidad Autónoma de Madrid: uam.es
- Francis, D. “Tipos de observación en el método científico” en eHow en español. Recuperado en 4 Septiembre 2017 de eHow en español: ehowenespanol.com
- Fabbri, M. “Las técnicas de investigación: la observación” en Universidad Nacional de Rosario. Recuperado en 4 Septiembre 2017 de Universidad Nacional de Rosario: fhumyar.unr.edu.ar.